UNIT 1: CONFEDERATION
CHAPTER 1: BRITISH NORTH AMERICA IN THE MID-1800s
Chapter 1 begins with an overview of the colonies of British North America, especially their geographical and ethnic differences. It then moves to examine the different stages of political and economic development visible among the colonies. Students learn that British North America was a diverse collection of colonies, whose differences were often more striking than their similarities. They learn that the colonies did not think of themselves as connected with each other (with the possible exception of the Province of Canada, formerly Canada East and Canada West). Students find out that, because the colonies lacked physical and economic links with each other, they each went their own way. Joining them together into a single nation was going to be a challenging task.
In the chapter performance task, students create three Venn diagrams to illustrate the similarities and differences among the people, the political structures, and the economies of the colonies of British North America.
Chapter 1 References:
Demers, Barbara.Willa’s New World.
Regina, SK: Coteau Books, 1999. ISBN 1-55050-150-X.
15-year-old Willa Thompson struggles as an orphan from London thrust on a ship bound for York Factory to be a slave. She must survive the harsh life of 18th-century Manitoba.
Haworth-Attard, Barbara.A Trail of Broken Dreams: The Gold Rush Diary of Harriet Palmer.
Markham, ON.: Scholastic Canada, 2004. ISBN 0-439-97405-4.
Harriet Palmer dresses as a boy and travels to the Cariboo in search of her father who has gone there to look for gold.
Lunn, Janet.The Root Cellar.
Toronto, ON: Lester Publishing, 1994. ISBN 1-895555-39-6.
In an old root cellar of an Ontario farmhouse, a young orphan girl stumbles into the world of the 1860s. She learns to function in both time periods and, as she does, the reader learns a great deal about the American Civil War era.
Taylor, Cora.Angelique: The Long Way Home. (Our Canadian Girl). Toronto, ON: Penguin Canada, 2005.
A fictional account of a Métis community on a buffalo hunt in the 1860s. The story centres on the adventures three children as they follow and are captured by raiders who have stolen many of the community’s horses.
Baldwin, Douglas.Rebellion and Union in the Canadas.
Calgary, AB: Weigl (Distributed by Saunders Book Co.), 2003. ISBN 1-55388-013-7.
Tells of the hardships endured by the people as the country struggled with the formation of governments during a time of westward expansion.
Hou, Charles and Cynthia Hou.Great Canadian Political Cartoons, 1820 to 1914. Vancouver, BC.: Moody’s Lookout Press, 1997. ISBN 0-9680016-1-0
An annotated collection of more than 330 political cartoons both English and French, many of which deal with social issues such as labour, women’s rights, poverty, racism, and Québec’s role in Confederation.
Nelson, Sheila.From the Atlantic to the Pacific: Canadian Expansion, 1867–1909. (How Canada Became Canada).
Philadelphia, PA: Mason Crest (Distributed by Saunders Book Co.), 2006. ISBN 1-4222-0005-1.
Includes topics such as frontier and pioneer life, Canada in 1867, and territorial expansion.
Renaud, Anne.Island of Hope and Sorrow: The Story of Grosse Île.
Montréal, QC: Lobster Press, 2007. ISBN 978-1-897073-54-4.Descriptive text and historical documents, maps, artifacts, and stories tell of the hopes and struggles on Grosse Île, a quarantine station for many immigrants who arrived at the port of Québec between 1832 and 1937.
Canada, A People’s History: Special Documentary Edition.
Toronto, ON.: Canadian Broadcasting Company; distributed by Morningstar Entertainment, 2001. Running time: 99 minutes. ISBN 1552590933.
Topics span 1670 to 1873 including The Pathfinders, Rebellion and Reform, The Great Enterprise, Railroad Remembered, and History of Science.
Land of Hope.
Montréal, QC, National Film Board 1997.
Volume I Order # 9195 192 . Running time: 29 minutes.
Volume II Order # 9195 205. Running time: 22 minutes.
Includes topics such as immigrants to Canada, government immigration policy, and multiculturalism.
Life in Early Canada.
Montréal, QC: The National Film Board of Canada, 1997.
Running time: 66 minutes.
Seven animated stories vividly show daily life in pre-Confederation Canada.
Upper Canada Village.
Kingston, ON: Cross Country Video Productions, 1990.
Running time: 31 minutes.
Through scenes at Upper Canada Village, the viewer sees what life was like in the 1860s in each of the seasons in rural Upper Canada.
Canadian Political Cartoons
Visuals and explanations for political cartoons by Charles and Cynthia Hou.
Collections Canada: The Absentee Landlord Question
Explains the absentee landlord issue in P.E.I.
The history and current activities of the Grey Nuns.
Museum of Civilization
View virtual exhibitions of the everyday life and history of First Nations. Main exhibitions: First Peoples of Canada, Aboriginal Heritage, The Haida, Playthings and Curios. (See also Bill Reid, canoe maker, carver,
Oil Museum of Canada
Visitors view the life and times of Canada’s oil pioneers and the birth of the oil industry in the North; includes a replica of the first oil well dug by James Miller Williams in 1858.
A short memoir of attending a one-room schoolhouse.
Saskatchewan One Room School Project with many excellent short memoirs.
Breaking the Ice: The Mary Ann Shadd Story
A documentary film.